Prof. Colin Sparks

Chair Professor in Media Studies

(852) 3411 8164

Prof. Sparks studied at Sussex, Oxford and Birmingham universities, receiving a doctoral degree from the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies. For many years, he taught at the University of Westminster, where he directed the Communication and Media Research Institute. He joined HKBU in August 2011.

Classes Taught

Media and communication theory
Critical theories of the media
New media and society
Comparative and international media

Research & Teaching Interests

Media in transitional societies
Comparative media systems
Impact of new media on media systems

Selected Publications
Authored Books
  • Development, globalization and the media.  London:Sage. (2007)Communism, Capitalism and the Media in Eastern Europe.  London: Sage. (With Anna Reading) (1997)Journalists for the 21st Century,. New York, Ablex. (1994) (With S. Splichal)
Edited Books
  • Towards a Political Economy of Culture:  Capitalism and Communication in the Twenty-First Century. Lanham, Ma: Rowman
    and Littlefield. (With Andrew Calabrese) (2005)Tabloid Tales:  Global Debates over Media Standards.  Lanham, Ma:  Rowman and Littlefield.  (With John
    Tulloch) (2000)Information Society and Civil Society. Purdue University Press. (With Andrew Calabrese and Slavko Splichal) (1994)The Media and Popular Culture, London, Sage. (With P. Dahlgren) (1992).Culture and Power: A Second Critical Reader from Media, Culture and Society, London, Sage, (With P.Scannell, P. Schlesinger
    and N. Garnham.) (1992)Communication and Citizenship, London: RKP. (With P. Dahlgren.) (1991)New Communication Technologies: a Challenge to Press Freedom. Paris: Unesco. (1991)

    Media, Culture and Society: A Critical Reader, London: Sage. (With R. Collins (1986)

Articles in Refereed Journals
  • Wang, Dan & Colin Sparks (2019). Smartphones, WeChat and paid content: Journalists and sources in a Chinese newspaper. Journalism Studies, https: doi: 10.1080/1461670X.2019.1620115.
  • Wang, Haiyan & Colin Sparks (2019). Chinese Newspaper Groups in the Digital Era: The Resurgence of the Party Press. Journal of Communication, 69 (1), 94-119. doi:10.1093/joc/jqy061.
  • Wang, Haiyan & Colin Sparks (2019). Marketing Credibility. Journalism Studies, 20/9, 1301-1318 DOI: 10.1080/1461670X.2018.1513815.
  • Sparks, Colin (2018) China’s soft power from the BRICS to the BRI. Global Media and China Volume 3, Issue 2, 92-99. Available at
  • Sparks, Colin (2018) Changing concepts for a changing world. Journal of Communication, volume 68(2), 390-98.
  • Zeng, Wenna & Colin Sparks (2018) Production and politics in Chinese Television. Media, Culture and Society Article first published online: April 6, 2018. Doi: 10.1177/0163443718764785. 1-16.
  • Maheshwari, Swait & Colin Sparks (2018) Political elites and journalistic practices in India: A case study of institutionalized heteronomy. Journalism. Article first published online: April 6, 2018. Doi: 1464884918761630. 1-17.
  • Wang, Haiyan, Colin Sparks and Huang Yu (2018) Measuring differences in the Chinese press: A study of People’s Daily and Southern Metropolitan Daily. Global Media and China, 3(3), 125-140.
  • Post-communism, democratisation and the media: (Nearly) thirty years on. Javnost/The Public, (2018).

  • Media credibility as a marketing tool: How the mainland Chinese press copes with technological challenges and economic crisis. Communication & Society,43, 123–154(In Chinese). Wang, H., Sparks, C., & Huang, Y. (2018).

  • Mellado, Claudi, Lea Hellmueller, Mireya Márquez-Ramírez, Maria Luisa Humanes Agnieszka Stepinska, Svetlana Pasti, Anna-Maria Schielicke, Edson Tandoc and Haiyan Wang (2017) The hybridization of journalistic cultures: a comparative study of journalistic cultures. Journal of Communication, 67(6), 944-67 (2017).
  • A Content analysis of the news reporting models of Chinese Press (Zhongguo chuantong meiti xinwen baodao moshi fenxi) , Chinese Journal of Journalism and Communication (Guoji xinwen jie), Vol 39 (6):105-123. Wang, Haiyan, Sparks, Colin, Huang, Yu, & Lu Nan (2017).

  • Localization as negotiation: producing a Korean format in contemporary China. International Journal of Digital Television, 8(1), 81-98. DOI: 10.1386/jdtv.8.1.81_1. With Zeng Wenna. 2017.

  • Popular Journalism in China:  A study of China Youth Daily, forthcoming in Journalism. DOI: 10.1177/1464884917691987. With Wang Haiyan, Lü Nan, Huang Yu. 2017

  • Differences in the mainland Chinese press:  A quantitative analysis. Asian Journal of Communication, 27(2). 154-71. DOI: 10.1080/01292986.2016.1240818. With Wang Haiyan, Lü Nan, Huang Yu. 2017.

  • Chinese Newspapers and Investigative Reporting in the New Media Age, Journalism Studies, online July 2016, DOI:10.1080/1461670X.2016.1192955.  With Li Ke. 2017.

  • The impact of digital media on newspapers: comparing the US and China. Global Media and China, 1(3), 186-207. DOI: 10.1177/2059436416666385. With Wang Haiyan, Lü Nan, Wang Dan and Huang Yu. 2016.

  • Differences within the mainland Chinese press: A quantitative analysis. Asian Journal of Communication. Online first, Vol 27, no.2, pp. 154-71. With Wang Haiyan, Lü Nan, Huang Yu.
  • Chinese Newspapers and Investigative Reporting in the New Media Age, Journalism Studies, online July 2016, DOI:10.1080/1461670X.2016.1192955. Forthcoming in print. With Li Ke. July 2016.
  • Business as usual:  the UK national daily press and the Occupy Central movement, Chinese Journal of Communication, volume 8,
    number 4, 2015, 429-446.
  • Power asymmetries in North-South dialogues, African Journalism Studies, vol.1, no.1, 2015, 51-56.
  • Deconstructing the BRICS, International Journal of Communication, January 2014
  • The digital divide today and tomorrow, Javnost/The Public, 20/2, June 2013. 27-46.
  • Global media studies: its development and dilemmas, Media, Culture & Society January 2013 35:1.  121-131,
  • Media and cultural imperialism reconsidered, Chinese Journal of Communication, vol.5, no. 3, July 2012, 281- 99.
  • Beyond political communication:  towards a broader perspective on the Chinese press.  Chinese Journal of Communication,
    vol.5, no.1, March 2012. 61-67
  • Media and transition in Latin America. Westminster Papers in Communication and Culture, vol. 8, no.2, September 2011.
  • South African Media in Comparative Perspective. Ecquid Novi: African Journalism Studies, vol. 32, no.2. August 2011. 5-19
  • Sociology and values in the light of the current world crisis.  Journal of Philosophy and Social Science of Belarusian State University,
    2010 number 4.  14-23.
  • Coverage of China in the UK national press.  Chinese Journal of Communication, vol.3, no.3, September 2010.
  • Investigative Journalism in China Today (with Tong Jingrong), Journalism Research, vol.10, no. 3.  337-352. (2009).
  • South African Media in Transition, Journal of African Media Studies, vol.1, no. 195-220. (2009)
  • Media Systems in Transition: Poland, Russia, China, Chinese Journal of Communication, vol.1, no.1, 7-24. (2008)
  • What’s wrong with globalization? Global Media and Communication, vol. 3, no.2. 133-56. (2007)
  • Extending and refining the propaganda model. Westminster Papers in Communication and Culture, volume 4, no.2. 68-84. (2007).
    Available at:
  • The wolves are coming….but not quite as quickly as we thought.  Medien Journal, volume 30, numbers 2-3.  24-36.
  • The problem of globalization.  in Global Media and Communication, volume 1, number 1, April 2005.  20-23.
  • The contribution of online newspapers to the public sphere:  A UK case study. in Trends in Communication, 11(2), 111-126.
  • Are the Western media really that interested in China?  Javnost/The Public, volume 10, number 4.  93-108. (2003)
  • Democratisation and the Media in Europe and Asia.  in Javnost/The Public, VIII(4), Winter 2001.  7-30. (2001)
  • Problems with a European Public Sphere.  in Javnost/The Public, VII1(1), Spring 2001. (Together with Risto Kunelius.).
    5-20. (2001)
  • Newspapers, the Internet and the Public Sphere’ in Review of Media, Information and Society, volume 4.51-68. (1999)
  • CME in the Former Communist Countries’ in Javnost/The Public, volume vi, no.2. 25-44 (1999)
  • Newspapers, the Internet and Democracy’ in Javnost/The Public, vol.3, no.3. 43-57. (1996)
  • The Media as a Power for Democracy in Javnost/The Public, vol.II, no.1. 45-74. (1995)
  • Concentration and Market Entry in the UK National Daily Press in European Journal of Communication, vol.10, no. 2. 179-206.
  • The Current Crisis of Public Service Broadcasting in Britain in Critical Studies in Mass Communication, vol.12, no.3.
    325-343. (1995)
  • The Survival of the State in British Broadcasting in Journal of Communication, vol.45, no.4. 140-59. (1995)
  • The Emerging Media Systems of Post-Communism in Javnost/The Public, vol.II, no.3.7-18. (1995)
  • Understanding Media Change in East-Central Europe’, with A. Reading, in Media, Culture and Society, vol. 16, no.2, 243-69.
  • The press, the market and democracy. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 6(2), 257-272. (1993)
  • The Press, the Market and Democracy in Journal of Communication, vol. 42, no.1. 36-51. (1992)
  • Press and Popular Culture, with James Curran, in Media, Culture and Society, vol. 13, no.2, April 1991.  215-37. (1991)
  • Britanske Kulturoloske Studije in Teorija in Praksa, vol.26, no.5.576-84. (Ljubljana) (1990)
  • The Impact of Technological and Political Change on the Labour Force in UK TV in Screen, Vol.30, nos.1-2, Winter/Spring
  • Experience, ideology and articulation: Stuart Hall and the development of culture. Journal of Communication Enquiry, vol.
    13, no.2.79-87, (1989)
  • The Attitudes of Trainee Journalists: A Comparative Study, with S. Splichal, in Gazette, vol.43, no.1. 31-52. (1989)
  • The Popular Press and Political Democracy in Media, Culture and Society,  vol.x, no.2. 209-23. (1988)
  • Striking Facts: TV and the Miners” in Media, Culture and Society, vol.ix, no.3. 369-77. (1987)
  • The Readership of the British Quality Press” in Media, Culture and Society, vol. ix, no.4. 427-55.(1987)
  • The Inscribed Reader of the British Quality Press”, with M. Campbell, in The European Journal of Communication, vol.2, no.4. 455-72. (1987)
  • “The Working-Class Press” in Media, Culture and Society, vol.vii, no.2. 133-46. (1985)
  • Western Marxism: A Critical Review” in Media, Culture and Society, vol.vii, no.4. 503-08. (1985)
  • The Evolution of Cultural Studies.  in Screen Education, Number 22, Spring 1977. 16-30. (1977)
  • The Abuses of Literacy. in Working Papers in Cultural Studies #6, Autumn 1974.  7-24. (1974)
  • Georg Lukacs.  in Working Papers in Cultural Studies #4, Spring 1973.  69-85.(1973)
Articles in Edited Books
  • Sparks, Colin and Wang Haiyan (2017) A General Crisis of the Print Media? Comparing China with U.S., U.K., France, Germany, Sweden, Japan and South Korea (Zhimei de pubian weiji? zhongguo yu meiguo yingguo faguo deguo ruidian riben he hanguo de bijiao), pp. 31-44, in: Zhang Zhi’an (ed.) An Annual Report on Chinese Journalism 2017 (zhongguo xinwenye niandu guancha baogao 2017). Beijing: People’s Daily Press (renmin ribao chubanshe)
  • Sparks, Colin (2017) Can we compare media systems? In: Joseph Chan and Francis Lee eds. Advancing Comparative Media and Communication Research. London: Routledge. 36-63.
  • Global integration, state policy and the media. Terry Flew, Petros Iosifidis, Jeanette Steemers Global Media and National Politics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 49-74. (2016)
  • China, soft power and imperialism. Gary Rawnsley and Ming-yeh Rawnsley Routledge Handbook of Chinese Media.  London: Routledge. 27-46. (2015)
  • How coherent is the BRICs grouping? Kaarle Nordenstreng and Daya Thussu eds. Mapping BRICS Media. London: Routledge. 42-65. (2015)
  • Resurrecting the imperial dimension in international communication. Chin-Chuan Lee ed. Internationalizing “International Communication.” Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. 156-77. (2015)
  • Technological innovation and social change.  Jan Servaes ed. Technological Determinism and Social Change: Communication in Tech-mad World.Lanham, NJ: Lexington. 65-86. (2014)
  • The interplay of politics and economics in transitional societies.  John Downey and Sabina Mihelj  eds.Central and Eastern European Media in Comparative Perspective.
    Farnham: Ashgate. 41-62. (2012)
  • After transition: A comparative study of Poland, Russia and China. Karol Jakubowicz and Miklos Sukosd eds.Central and eastern European media change in global perspective. Bristol: Intellect. 43-71. (2008).
  • Comparing Transitions: Poland, Russia, China. Evgeni TanchevDemocracy, technology and freedom of expression.
    Sofia:  SAITC.  31-36. (2006)
  • Contradictions in capitalist media practice.  Lee Artz, Steve Macek and Dana Cloud eds. Marxism and Communication Studies:  The point is to change it.
    New York: Peter Lang. 111-32. (2006)
  • Media and the global public sphere: An evaluative approach.  Wilma de Jong, Martin Shaw and Neil Stammers eds. Global activism, global media. London: Pluto Press.34-49. (2006)
  • Civil Society as a contested concept: Media and political transformation in Eastern and Central Europe.  Robert Hackett and Yuezhi
    Zhao eds. Democratizing global media:  One world, many struggles.  Lanham, MD. : Rowman and Littlefield. 37-56. (2006)
  • Teorii ale mass media dupa prabusirea communismului European. De ce vehicle modele din Est si Vest nu vor mai funcitiona.  In Valentina
    Marinescu ed. Communicare si Putere.  Bucharest: Niculescu.  40-62. 2006)
  • United Kingdom:  The Triumph of Quality?  Richard van der Wurff and Edmund Lau feds. Print and Online Newspapers in Europe: A Comparative Analysis in 16 Countries.
    Amsterdam:  Het Spinhuis.  259-74. (Together with Aybige Yilmaz) (2006)
  • The media:  a challenge to the Anglosphere? Hugo de Burgh ed. China and Britan: the potential impact of China’s development. London:  Smith Institute.  122-37. (With Hugo de Burgh) (2006)
  • The Impact of the Internet on the Existing Media.  Andrew Calabrese and Colin Sparks ed. Towards a Political Economy of Culture:  Capitalism and Communication in the Twenty-First Century. 307-326. (2005)
  • Development, Imperialism and Globalization:  The Implications of the Paradigm Shifts in International Communication.  In Srinivas,
    R. and Rao, S. (eds.) 2001 Critical Issues in Communication:  Looking Inward for Answers.  Delhi: Sage Publications.
  • The Internet and the Global Public Sphere.  In Bennett, L. and Entman, R. (eds.)  2001 Mediated Politics:  Communication in the Future of Democracy.
    New York:  Cambridge University Press. 75-95 (2001)
  • Media and Democratic Society: A Survey of Post-communist Experience.  In Blunden, M. and Burke, P. (ed.)Democratic Reconstruction in the Balkans. London:
    Centre for the Study of Democracy.  147-64. (2001)
  • From Dead Trees to Live Wires:  The Internet’s Challenge to the Traditional Newspaper.  In Curran, J. and Gurevitch,
    M. (eds.) Mass Media and Society, Third Edition.  London:  Edward Arnold.  268-92. (2000)
  • Media theory after the fall of European communism:  Why the old models from East and West won’t do any more.  In Curran,
    J. and Park, M-J. (eds.) Dewesternizing Media Studies.  London: Routledge. 35-49 (2000)
  • Introduction:  The Panic over Tabloid News. In Sparks, C. and Tulloch, J. (eds.) 2000 Tabloid Tales:  Global Debates over Media
    Standards.  Lanham, Maryland:  Rowman and Littlefield.  1-40. (2000)
  • The global, the local and the public sphere.  In Wang, G., Servaes, J. and Goonasekera, A. (eds.) The New Communications Landscape: Demystifying Media Globalization.
    London:  Routledge.  74-95 (2000)
  • The Distribution of Online Resources and the Democratic Potential of the Internet.  In van Cuilenberg, J. and van der Werf, R. (eds)  Media and Open Societies:  Cultural, Economic and Policy Foundations for Media Openness and Diversity in East and West.
    Amsterdam:  Het Spinhuis.  229-54. (2000)
  • The Press. In Stokes, J. and Reading, A. (eds.) The media in Britain:  current debates and developments.
    Basingstoke, Hants:  Macm`illan.41-60. (1999)
  • Newspapers, the Internet and the Public Sphere’ (A substantially different article, with the same title) in Zassoursky, Y. and
    Vartanova, E. Media, Communications and the Open Society. Moscow: Faculty of Journalism/IKAR. 88-104. (1999)
  • Is there a global public sphere? in Thussu, D. (ed.) Electronic Empires: Global Media and Local Resistance.  London:
    Edward Arnold. 108-24. (1998)
  • Are newspapers prices inelastic?  Lessons from the UK price war’ in Picard, R. ed. Evolving Media Markets:  Effects of Economic and Policy Changes.
    Turku, Fi.: The Economic Research Foundation for Mass Communication. (1998)
  • Post-Communist Media in Transition in Corner, J. Schlesinger, P. and Silverstone, R. (Eds.) International Media Research: A Critical Survey.
    London: Routledge. 96-122. (1997)
  • Television, Culture and Minority Groups in Andión, M.L. (Ed.) Communicación na Periferia Atlántica.  Santiago de
    Compostella: Universidade de Santiago de Compostella. 185-193. 96-122.(1996)
  • Newspapers, the Internet and Democracy’ in Javnost/The Public, vol.3, no.3. 43-57. (1996)
  • Is there an Emerging European Media Model’ in Glenn, P. and Šoltys, O. (Eds.) Media ’95: Experience and Expectations – Five Years After.
    Prague:  Charles University Press. 67-79. (1996)
  • Stuart Hall, Cultural Studies and Marxism in D. Morley and K-H. Chen (Eds.) Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies.
    Routledge. 71-102. (1996)
  • Re-regulating Television After Communism in F. Corcoran (Eds.) Democracy and Communication in the New Europe. New
    York: Hampton. 31-50. (1995)
  • Civil Society and Information Society as Guarantors of Progress in A. Calabrese, C. Sparks and S.Splichal (Eds.) Information Society and Civil Society.
    Purdue University Press. 21-49. (1994)
  • Independent Production in S. Hood (Ed.)  Broadcasting and the Left.  Lawrence and Wishart. 133-54. (1994)
  • Raymond Williams and the Theory of Democratic Communication’ in J. Wasko et. al. (Eds.) Communication and Democracy. New
    York, Ablex, 1993. 69-86. (1993)
  • Trends in the British media system in I. Kovats (Ed.) Media in Transition: An East-West Dialogue.  Eötvös Lorànd
    University Press, 1993.  48-64.(1993)
  • Theories of Popular Culture’. 24-44.P. Dahlgren and C. Sparks (eds.)The Media and Popular Culture,  London, Sage. (1992).
  • New Freedoms — Old Problems: The Role of Journalists in Times of Change in Nordenstreng, K. and W. Kleinwächter (Eds.) CSCE and Information.
    Tampere: University of Tampere. 55-66. (1992)
  • Goodbye Hildy Johnson in P. Dahlgren and Colin Sparks (eds) Communication and Citizenship,. London: RKP. 58-74. (1991)
  • British Press Reporting of the New World Information and Communication Order”, with P. Schlesinger. A report to UNESCO  in
    Gerbner, Nordenstreng and Mowlana eds. The Global Media Debate: UNESCO, NWICO and the Mass Media Declaration. New
    York, Ablex: (1991)
  • The media as Fourth Estate: a survey of journalism educators views in C. Sparks (ed) New Communication Technologies: a Challenge to Press Freedom.
    Paris: Unesco. (1991)
  • The Death of the BBC Journalisthogskolan  i Stockholm Skriftserie. 24-41. (Stockholm) (1990)
  • Democratization of the Media From Two Perspectives: Political and Professional Orientation Among Journalism Students in 22 Countries
    in Splichal, Hochheimer and Jakubowicz (Eds.) Democratization and the Media. An East-West Dialogue. Communication
    and Culture Colloquia/University of Iowa.  149-172. (1990)
  • Bucking the Trend? TV News in Britain Today in Syversten, T. ed. 1992 and After: Nordic Television in Transition. University
    of Bergen. 84-103. (1990)
  • Trade Union Uses of Video in The Industrial Tutor, vol.iv, nos 4-5, Autumn 86 — Spring 87.48-66 (1987)
  • The Media and the State in J. Curran et al. eds. Bending Reality. London: Pluto. 76-86. (1986)
  • Writers and the General Strike, with Chris Pawling and Adrian Mellor, in Margaret Morris ed. The General Strike. London: Penguin.(1976)
Other Scholarly Publications
  • Dialogue. Media studies in transitional societies: capitalism, communism and the media.  A discussion with Huang Yu and Wang Haiyan, Communication and Society,
    35 (2015), 1-39. (In English and Chinese)
  • `What is the “Digital Divide” and why is it important,’ in Golding, Peter and Splichal, Slavko, eds. Media in Europe: New Questions for Research and Policy.
    Strasbourg: European Science Foundation.  17- 23. 2014. (with Hannu Nieminen)”The future of press and journalism education,” in SHI, Anbin (ed.) Quanqiu chuanbo yu xinwen jiaoyu de weilai (The Future
    of Global Communication and Journalism Education), Beijing: Tsinghua UP (October 2013).Bu duan jin xing you jia zhi de tan suo yu nu li – guo ji chuan bo yu xin xi xin zhi xu man tan (“The New World Order Today”). The Chinese Journalist,
    2011, no.8 (August). 42-46.
  • China’s media in comparative perspective. International Journal of Communication 4 (2010), Features 552–566.
    Available at:
  • Reality TV:  The Big Brother phenomenon.  International Socialism Journal, #114. 171-90. (2007)
  • What’s wrong with globalization? (in Chinese).  in Journalism and Communication Review, no. 211.  Wuhan
    Publishing House. (2005)
  •  Newspapers and advertising, online.  In Mike Richards and Nayia Roussou eds.  The Internet and Modern Communications.
    Conference Proceedings No.1. Communications Department, Intercollege. Nicosia. (unpaginated). (2003)
  • Media si Societatea Democraticã.  in Psihosocologia & Mass media. 2/2001.46-55. (2002)
  • Media and Democratic Society: A Survey of Post-Communist Experience.  In Romanian Journal of Sociology, vol. x/1999, no. 1-2.
    7-21. (2002)
  • Media Theory After the Fall of Communism:  Why the Old Models from East and West Won’t Do Any More inJournal of Communication and Culture,
    #7 (Fu-Jen University, Taiwan). 239-57. (1999)
  • Three stories about the internationalisation of cultural studies’ (in Japanese) in Hanada, T., Yoshimi, S. and Sparks, C. (eds.) Karuchuraru sutadiizu to no taiwa (`A
    dialogue with cultural studies). Tokyo: Shinyosha. 276-85. (1999)
  • Development, imperialism and globalization:  the implications of paradigm shifts in the study of international communication’
    (in Mandarin) in Contemporary Monthly nos. 136 and 137. 104-19 and 89-99 (1999)
  • Exista oare “siarwmul mediatic post-communist”? in Sfera Politicii, no. 64. 13-17.(1998)
  • Introduction to Tabloidization and the Media in Javnost/The Public, 5(3).5-10. (1998)
  • From the Hundred Aker Wood to the Magic Kingdom: Inaugural Lecture.  University of Westminster, Professorial Lecture Series
  • Sanomalehti, Internet Ja Demokratia in Tiedotustutkimus, 1996/4. 20-33 (1996)
  • Newspaper, the Internet and Democracy in J. Pomorskiego and Z. Bajki (Eds.) Essays on Human Communication/Valeriana/Eseje o Komunikowaniu Mi_dy Lud_mi.
    Kraków: O_rodek Bada_ Prasoznawczych Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego. 120-26. (1996)
  • The press, the market and democracy. Innovation in Social Science Research, vol.6, no.2. 257-72.(1993)
  • From State to Market: What Eastern Europe inherits from the West. in Media Development, vol xxxviii, no.3/1991. 11-15.
  • The Mass Media Market in Eastern Europe in Transnational Data and Communications Report, vol. 14, no.3, May/June 1991.
    20. (1991)
  • Journalism Education and the Role of the Media as Fourth Estate: A Report. Commissioned by UNESCO. (1990)
  • BBC:n kuolema in Tiedotustutkimus 2:1987. (Tampere) 3-13. (1987)
  • The Crisis in Film Theory in International Socialism, 2:34 71-105.(1986)
Selected grants
  • HK UGC GRF “Journalistic Role Conceptions and Journalistic Role Performance in Mainland China and Hong Kong.”
  • Dr Lee Kau Shu Fund “The Impact of Political, Economic and Technological Change on Chinese Newspaper Journalism”
Editorial Boards
  • Editor, Media Culture and Society
  • Editorial Board, Chinese Journal of Communication
  • Associate Editorial Board, Journal of International Communication
  • Editorial Board, Javnost/The Public
  • Editorial Board, Global Media and China